Well Done SA

Slacker Astronomy (Aaron at least) are at the AAS meeting, in Minneapolis, this week. Unfortunately, it is a bit far for me to go, but their abstract and poster (beware! It is HUGE!) are online for download. That certainly saves on airfare but I don't get to throw tomatoes. Their poster explains what podcasting is, shows the geographical distribution of people listening to the show and pleads for astronomers to contribute. It also gives us the latest listening figures - 5000 real people. That is only since February and without much publicity. Well done guys. Still the best astronomy podcast on the Internet.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Tuesday 31st May 2005 (22:55 UTC) | Permalink

Aurora Alert

The UK Sub-Auroral Magnetometer Network, operated by Lancaster University, has issued an amber alert for a possible geomagnetic storm (aurora). This agrees with the USAF Space Forecast Centre's planetary K-index plots, so it looks like now might be a good time to see aurora. These will presumably be linked to sunspot group 767. If it is dark and clear where you are, go have a look outside especially if you live quite far north or quite far south of the equator.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Monday 30th May 2005 (15:30 UTC) | Permalink

When big science goes wrong

To do top quality science research these days, you usually need a lot of equipment. Sometimes it needs to be big as well. Radio telescopes are a very good example of big science. However, when these massive structures are built, it isn't just the science that is pushed to the frontiers; the engineering is as well. This is bleeding edge stuff and occasionally, just occasionally, things will go wrong.

There used to be a 300ft telescope at Green Bank in Virginia. I say 'used to' because at 9:43 p.m. EST on Tuesday the 15th of November 1988, it collapsed. The collapse was due to "the sudden failure of a key structural element - a large gusset plate in the box girder assembly that formed the main support for the antenna". An astronomer named Richard Porcas (surely one of the few astronomers with an IMDB entry) had been taking pictures of the telescope during the day it collapsed, so was asked to take some more showing it afterwards. I've heard an urban myth that the observers in the building beneath only noticed the collapse because the signal they were looking at stopped. This probably isn't true but makes a good story.

300ft telescope after collapse
IMAGE: Richard Porcas, courtesy of NRAO/AUI

Thankfully, the Green Bank telescope was rebuilt (it took a long time) as the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope which is just about operational now. It is currently the largest steerable radio telescope in the World and is an amazing sight to see.

It isn't just radio telescopes that have had problems though. The Super Kamiokande neutrino telescope 'exploded' back in 2001 and had to be rebuilt. I would hate to be the person on duty when a disaster like that happens.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Thursday 26th May 2005 (21:53 UTC) | Permalink

Which planet is this?

Uranus and moons seen by VLT
IMAGE: European Southern Observatory

Although the first name that popped into my head was Saturn - the iconic rings - it is actually a near-infrared image of the planet Uranus. It was taken with the European Southern Observatory's 8.2 metre ANTU telescope - part of the VLT - in November 2002. The methane present in the atmosphere of Uranus actually absorbs this particular wavelength of light, so the planet seems quite dark in comparison to the bright, icy rings which reflect the Sun's light. You can also spot seven of Uranus's moons in the image which are named after Shakespearean characters.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Tuesday 24th May 2005 (17:34 UTC) | Permalink

Mini CMEs

The Sun isn't peaceful. It is constantly spitting and sneezing out large amounts of plasma into space something that is officially called a coronal mass ejection (CME). This plasma - a soup of electrically charged particles - travels out through the solar system and can hit us if we happen to get in the way.

A negative image of the Sun showing the active region
IMAGE: Solar UK Research Facility

Until recently, solar physicists have studied large CMEs mainly because they are easier to watch. When I say big, I mean big; sometimes the base of the explosions cover an area of thousands of millions of square miles. Now, an international team have observed the smallest ever coronal mass ejection coming from an area which is only about the size of the Earth! You can see it highlighted in the image above.

Monitoring CMEs is important as the very energetic charged particles cause problems for us if they reach the Earth. These days we call this space weather.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Monday 23rd May 2005 (12:20 UTC) | Permalink

Spacecraft spotting

Over the years we have become used to the idea of getting pictures of the surfaces of other planets and moons. The last two years has been somewhat a golden age with several successful missions to Mars and Cassini-Huygens to Saturn. Now, NASA have released the first images of one a spacecraft orbiting another planet by another spacecraft. The image below shows the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as seen from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS).

Mars Odyssey seen from Mars Global Surveyor
Image Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS

MGS also managed to take a couple of shots of ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. Mars Express was over 250 km away so detail isn't really visible although it doesn't look too different to the artist's impression.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Sunday 22nd May 2005 (15:45 UTC) | Permalink

ProAm

Astronomy is special. It is one of the few (only?) areas of science, where amateurs actually contribute. It is difficult to imagine groups of amateur geneticists mapping the human genome, but you will find countless amateur astronomers monitoring the skies for supernovae, asteroids, comets etc.

Recently, a bunch of amateur astronomers in Canada, won a competition to use the 8 metre Gemini telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The contest required scientific proposals to be submitted by amateur groups and the winning observations were chosen on scientific merit. There were observations on two telescopes up for grabs; Gemini North and the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. The winners, of time on Gemini North, were Club dastronomie de Dorval in Quebec and they observed a stellar nursery named RY Tau (in the constellation of Taurus). The image they got was stunning and I have included it below. It is worth clicking on the image to visit the Gemini site and see the Pleiades image taken by the Big Sky Astronomical Society of Vulcan, Alberta who won time on the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope.



In other amateur news, the Astronomical League (a group of amateur associations in the US) recently announced the winners of its '2005 National Young Astronomer' award. The top winner was Christopher Limbach who is a high school student in Wisconsin. He has been making studies of the light curves of eclipsing binaries from his backyard! Impressive.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Saturday 21st May 2005 (23:26 UTC) | Permalink

LDN 134

In times gone by, those that studied the skies would give the objects that they observed fanciful, romantic names. However, these days, with our advanced equipment, surveys can contain thousands or millions of objects. There certainly isn't time to name them all and you would probably get stuck thinking of new names very quickly. These days, astronomers use names that look more like postcodes (zip codes) or telephone numbers and this makes the naming process much easier and quicker.

So an object name will usually start with an abbreviation of the name of the survey and then be followed by the number of the object in the survey. You may be familiar with the New General Catalogue (NGC), a list of almost 8000 deep sky objects compiled in the 1880s. You may also have heard of the Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3C), which contains many radio objects such as active galaxies and quasars. However, you probably haven't heard of Lynds Catalogue of Dark Nebulae (LDN). This is a list of dark nebulae that was compiled in 1962 by Beverly Lynds using red and blue prints from the National Geographic-Palomar Observatory sky atlas.

So what is special about LDN 134? Apart from being the 134th object in the survey - that isn't particularly exciting - it is classed as one of the best dark nebulae to observe. The nebula is 22.0 by 12.0 arcminutes in size and contains a Bok globule which is a dense cloud in which new stars are forming. So, if you want a challenge and are at a very dark site, try having a look for it.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Thursday 19th May 2005 (23:15 UTC) | Permalink

AstronomyNow NoMore?

The website of the "UK's best selling monthly astronomy magazine", AstronomyNow, seems to have disappeared from the face of the web. All that is left is a holding page for Network Solutions, the company that registered the domain for them. It looks as though their account may have expired on 10th May (last week), so perhaps they forgot to pay their subscription.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Monday 16th May 2005 (13:36 UTC) | Permalink

Getting perspective

On the train the other day, I got asked a question by a mature lady about things in the sky. She wanted to know what the white things were. Although my first thought was clouds, I quickly realised that she was referring to the contrails that could be seen criss-crossing the sky. This was a surprise to me as I assumed pretty much everybody new what a contrail was.

Nevertheless, I explained to her that they were caused by the heat from jet engines. She didn't buy it as she claimed never to have seen them when on a plane. Contrails tend to become visible some way behind the engine so she is probably right about not seeing the trails from the plane you are on. You can still see trails from other planes though. As further evidence for a non-aviation cause, she pointed out that they went down to the ground. It took me a second or to to realise that she was having a problem with perspective; the contrails going into the distance look as though they are getting closer to the ground. The plane and ground are still the same distance apart, just further away. This comment reminded me of a line in the classic sit-com Father Ted:

"Now concentrate this time, Dougal. These (pointing to plastic cows on table) are very small. Those (pointing out of the window) are far away".

Anyway, I was quickly able to demonstrate that the mysterious white lines were, in fact, due to jet engines. I simply pointed out a trail forming behind a plane visible from the other side of the train. Suggesting a theory and supporting it with observational evidence. Now that is science in action!

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Sunday 15th May 2005 (00:19 UTC) | Permalink

It isn't green and it doesn't glow

For some time I have been aware of a common misconception about radio telescopes. Some people think that they are like mobile phone masts and electricity pylons; they think that they are emitting some kind of radiation. These people then link the word radiation with green, glowing things and get a bit worried about possible damage to their health.This has recently been a concern of people living near a proposed site for the SKA in western Australia. However, a radio telescope doesn't emit (give out) radiation; it quietly sits there 'listening' to the radiation that would be there anyway, radio telescope or not.

Unfortunately, the stigma attached to the word radiation is widespread, and the difference in understanding of the term between scientists and non-scientists can cause problems (as in concerns over the SKA show). Scientists tend to use the word radiation quite freely to describe the thing that non-scientists know of as light. Yes, I do mean the same stuff that comes out of a light bulb. Compare 'optical radiation emitter' with 'torch' and you will notice that the first sounds much scarier than the second, even though they are both the same thing. When scientists use the word radiation, they are using it to cover the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum; everything from radio waves to the colours of the rainbow and X-rays. Not all radiation is bad for us.

Having said all that about radiation, the point remains that radio telescopes do not emit radiation any more than a herd of cows does.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Saturday 14th May 2005 (23:21 UTC) | Permalink

Comets and Asteroid Impacts Lecture

The next Lovell Public Lecture, is on Wednesday 15th June at 7.30pm. It is being given by Dr. Marek Kukula (Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh) on the topic of comet and asteroid impacts. I'm not quite sure why he chose this topic for a talk as his research is on quasar host galaxies - a somewhat different scale. Presumably it will be similar to a talk he gave for a University of Edinburgh evening class and at the British Council in Lithuania. Tickets are reasonably priced with discounts for kids, students and OAPs!

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Saturday 14th May 2005 (22:25 UTC) | Permalink

I can't hear you. You're breaking up.

Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio communications is cropping up more and more in the media these days. It is portrayed as an open source use of the electro-magnetic spectrum against the vested interests of mobile phone companies, broadcasters and the military. This sounds very admirable and sure everyone wants to connect to the Internet with amazing data rates, but it ignores one important point; how it affects the passive users of the spectrum such as astronomers and geophysicists.

Spectrum allocation in the US

IMAGE: NTIA Office of Spectrum Management

What is the spectrum? You will already have some experience of it in the numbers that your favourite radio station tells you every few minutes or so. Think taglines such as "97-99 FM. Radio 1","Key 103 Manchester" or "96.3 Aire FM". Those numbers actually represent the frequency - in this case they are in Mega Hertz (MHz) - of the radio waves used to transmit the station to you. Unless you only like one station (or have a DAB radio) you will probably be familiar with moving through the spectrum when you turn the dial to get to another station. The radio spectrum is much wider than your radio set can cope with though as it extends from about 3 kHz (3,000 Hz) up to 3 GHz (3 billion Hertz). It is usually managed by governments and international treaties so that everyone doesn't interfere with everyone else. The allocation of the spectrum in the US is shown above (click on the image for a large PDF version). Radio astronomy occupies a very small part of the spectrum (a specific shade of yellow in the image) but unlike the other users, it doesn't transmit; it just 'listens'.

The UWB technology plans to spread the transmissions thinly across wide swathes of spectrum. The proponents claim that the amount of power in these transmissions is lower than the natural noise level and so isn't a problem. But the wide spread use of this technology will actually raise the noise 'floor'. Between radio stations you will be used to hearing 'white noise' which you might think is the natural noise level. Well, it isn't. It is mainly due to the fact that your radio set is relatively warm. Warm electronics means more energetic electrons and so more electronic noise in your receiver. Radio Astronomers combat this by cooling their receivers to extremely low temperatures. My receiver gets cooled down to about 15 Kelvin (close to -260 C), so is probably much cooler than your radio set! After taking all the trouble to make things as quiet as possible (sometimes at great cost), it is very annoying when someone sticks a whopping great signal such as a mobile phone nearby. This is just like someone turning on a floodlight next to your nice optical telescope.

To defend the scientific use of the spectrum, we have good people such as Jim Cohen at Jodrell Bank Observatory, who have been fighting for years to keep the astronomical parts of the spectrum quiet while dealing with underhand tactics by other spectrum users. Despite all the efforts, radio astronomers are facing increasingly difficult times.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Thursday 12th May 2005 (13:37 UTC) | Permalink

ISS through Leo

Another night, another ISS pass. This time I caught the International Space Station moving through the constellation of Leo (the Lion). I have reduced the amount of red in the image to counteract the orange glow of the street lights and increased the contrast. If you click on the image you get a bigger version with the Bayer designations of the brightest stars in the constellation.

ISS in Leo

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Wednesday 11th May 2005 (22:40 UTC) | Permalink

The wonder of science

Phil Plait has just added an excellent entry to his blog. It is the text of a speech he made at a school science fare in April. In it, he manages to put across what is so great about the scientific process; you can find out all sorts of amazing things and improve the lives of millions of people just by applying some critical thought to the universe. I won't say any more because Phil does a much better job of it.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Wednesday 11th May 2005 (17:33 UTC) | Permalink

Into the shadows

Tonight has been fun. There have been two passes of the International Space Station (ISS) and I have seen both. The first one was just before 10pm and it could be seen traversing the entire sky. The second was at 11:26 and I followed it from near the western horizon until it disappeared above Jupiter (south). The image below was an eight second exposure as the ISS disappeared into the Earth's shadow; it 'disappears' as it is no longer reflecting light from the Sun. It was travelling from west to east (right to left) and can be seen as a streak near the top of the image. Jupiter is the bright object above the guttering of my neighbour's house. The orange blob near the bottom of the image is just a reflection of a nearby streetlight in the lens. The orange effect is due to the ever increasing light pollution.

International Space Station

What made the second pass even better was that I managed to show it to three passers-by - one had only stopped to ask for directions. I took the opportunity to point out Jupiter and Saturn as well, as people often don't realise that they can see planets. I've been telling a few people about these passes, over the last few days. I like the idea that people in Kendal, Manchester, Leeds and Hatfield were all outside tonight watching as Commander Sergei Krikalev and Flight Engineer John Phillips zipped by at 7.7 km per second. There are still more chances to see ISS passes for the rest of the week although the sooner the better.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Tuesday 10th May 2005 (23:19 UTC) | Permalink

ISS spotting

I've just seen the International Space Station pass over for the first time! It was pretty cool. I went on the Heavens Above website earlier on today and had a look to see when it would be around next. They give you start and end times for the pass and what magnitude it will be. Being at latitude 53 means that the ISS isn't always visible. This particular one was good, not only because it was the first time I've seen the space station from the ground, but because I saw it pass into the shadow of the Earth and dim until I couldn't see it anymore while still at an elevation of around 45 degrees. Actually, I was quite lucky to see it tonight as there is a lot of cloud around; luckily the bit of sky that I needed to see had a gap in the clouds.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Saturday 07th May 2005 (23:00 UTC) | Permalink

More moons

It is difficult to keep up with the current moon counts these days. I noticed that Tom had spotted that the moon count for Saturn has jumped up by 12 to 46. It also looks like another moon of Jupiter has been found down the back of the sofa; it now has 63 known moons.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Saturday 07th May 2005 (13:35 UTC) | Permalink

Poor Predictions from Astrologers

Update 2010/02/12: I bowed to the pressure of some of the commenters below and changed the title of this post. Previously the title contained the term "bad" which was used in the sense of "not dependable or reliable" at making correct predictions and not in the sense of "evil, unpleasant, deleterious, or noxious". I am ashamed to have caved in on this particularly as changing the title will not actually provide the solution they think it will. I did provide constructive solutions but those seemed to be ignored. Now back to the original post...

In Thursday's Guardian, several astrologers, tarot readers and assorted others were asked for their predictions for the UK General Election (I hope it was supposed to be ironic). Astrologer types can often be believed because few people actually check their predictions but selectively remember the successes. Now that all the results (currently 645 out of 646) are in, I thought it might be good to see how they did. Taking out all the wuffly talk, these are the predictions:

Christine Hillard, Tarot Reader

  • Prediction: The process will not go smoothly.
    Result: Mostly wrong. Apart from some recounts, it seemed fairly smooth. The postal voting went better than I expected.
  • Prediction: Charles Kennedy will not be elected.
    Result: Correct. He wasn't, although that would have been predicted by most of the country - even Liberal Democrat voters
  • Prediction: Michael Howard will be higher in the polls than expected.
    Result: Wrong. New Labour's majority is about 65; exactly what MORI predicted in the run up to Thursday's vote so I would say that he didn't do better than expected.
  • Prediction: We're looking at a photo finish.
    Result: Wrong. Labour were well out in front all night and finished with a significant (if smaller) majority.
  • Prediction: Blair will win.
    Result: Correct. Wasn't that obvious.
TOTAL: 2.5/5.

Richard Brown, astrologer He cleverly managed to waffle on for three paragraphs and only makes one prediction.
  • Prediction: A period of confusion for Blair stretching into early July.
    Result: Not so far. Perhaps for the Conservatives.
TOTAL: 0/1.

Michael Korel, Tarot reader
  • Prediction: Lib Dems have no chance whatsoever of success.
    Result: Correct. As before, this wasn't surprising for the 'third' party.
  • Prediction: Some gains for the Conservatives on last time. They won't be enough.
    Result: Correct. As all the polls predicted.
  • Prediction: Labour will have a reliance on previous glories.
    Result: Correct.
  • Prediction: Labour will win with a much smaller majority.
    Result: Correct. As MORI et al suggested.
TOTAL: 4/4.

Sharon Rimmer, clairvoyant I will have to ignore her predictions for the coming years and focus on just the last few days.
  • Prediction: Labour will just scrape through.
    Result: Wrong. A majority of 65 isn't exactly scraping through.
  • Prediction: The Liberal Democrats will take seats from both the Conservatives and Labour.
    Result: Correct.
  • Prediction: It will be close to a hung parliament. There will be no defining power.
    Result: Wrong. A 65 majority.
  • Prediction: Robert Kilroy-Silk will not win a seat.
    Result: Correct.
  • Prediction: Oona King will defeat the threat of George Galloway.
    Result: Wrong. He won!
TOTAL: 2/5.

Camilla Ventham Fraser, spiritual medium Ignoring one prediction for the future.
  • Prediction: Blair will be voted out.
    Result: Wrong. How wrong could she be.
  • The Conservatives will return to government with a three-seat majority.
    Result: Wrong. The Conservatives got 159 seats less than Labour.
  • Howard is our next prime minister.
    Result: Wrong.
  • Prediction: Kilroy-Silk will win a seat.
    Result: Wrong. He came fourth in the seat he was standing in.
  • Prediction: The greens will not get a seat.
    Result: Correct.
  • Prediction: Wimbledon will be a Conservative win.
    Result: Correct. After a 7.2% swing from Labour to Conservative.
  • Prediction: The Lib Dems will gain seven seats.
    Result: Wrong. They gained 11.
TOTAL: 2/7

Robin Lown, hand psychologist/palmist
  • Prediction: Blair will win by a whisker.
    Result: Wrong.
  • Prediction: Huge loss of marginal seats.
    Result: There was a big loss but not big enough to cause a change in government. I'll give him this one.
  • Prediction: Michael Howard will survive as Conservative leader.
    Result: Wrong. He plans to step down.
RESULT: 1/3

Paul Watson, western and Chinese astrologer
  • Prediction: The Liberals will do fairly well but nothing spectacular
    Result: Correct. Let's assume that getting the highest number of seats since the 1920s isn't spectacular.
  • Prediction: Howard will do better than expected.
    Result: Wrong. He did as expected by the opinion polls.
  • Prediction: Blair will win.
    Result: Correct.
  • Prediction: Closer than the polls predict.
    Result: Wrong.
RESULT: 2/4

The astrologers provided much astro-babble to make themselves sound important. Talking about Tony Blair, Richard Brown claimed that "the solar return chart has a yod apex Pluto in the second house, which implies determination yielding success in mass movements involving the public". I wonder if that applies to the railways as well. He also managed to bring Quaoar into his discussion, so presumably he thinks Kuiper belt objects are influential. Michael Korel did get all his predictions correct but he wasn't saying anything different to most of the political commentators before the election. Overall though, it would appear that this bunch generally do worse than 50 percent on the success of their predictions once you remove the astro/mystical waffle. I think I'll stick to Andrew Marr.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Saturday 07th May 2005 (13:03 UTC) | Permalink

Astronomical puns

When looking for astronomical papers, you sometimes stumble across a really bad title. How about Merak taken Siriusly (David W. Latham) from the Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society in 1969? If you see one that is worse, add it below.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Wednesday 04th May 2005 (21:52 UTC) | Permalink

Zepto-Moon

I have a thing for crazy units. The first crazy unit I found was the femto-lightfortnight. You may be familiar with the lightyear which is how far light travels (at 186,000 miles per second) in a year. A femto-lightfortnight is the distance that light travels in a quadrillionth (10-15) of a fortnight. If you work out the maths, it turns out to be a length of about 36 cm (just over 14 inches). Quite useful for measuring the heights of people. My latest crazy unit is the zepto-Moon, or in other words, a sextillionth (10-21) of the mass of the Moon. The Moon has a mass of 7.36 1022 kg, so a zepto-Moon works out at a handy 73.6 kg (162 lbs for those still using old money) which just happens to be about the same mass as me. Utterly pointless.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Wednesday 04th May 2005 (00:42 UTC) | Permalink

Increase the area

In astronomy, bigger is better. A couple of weeks ago, I mentioned plans for the ELTs (extremely large telescopes) which would be up to a 100 metres in diameter. For an optical telescope that is huge; think four standard length UK swimming pools. That's mightily impressive, even though radio astronomers have been dealing with structures that size for some time.

Even so, radio astronomers wanted more and soon found themselves at the limits of engineering. It is only possible to build a bowl so big, especially if it needs to point in any direction in the sky. To get around the problem, some clever people decided to link up the signals from different radio telescopes in a technique known as interferometry. This gives you the same resolution as a radio telescope the size of the largest separation of the telescopes in your array. So, if you have six or so telescopes spread around England, you can synthesize a telescope with a diameter of 217 km (yes, that is kilometres). At radio frequencies this just happens to give you the same resolution as the Hubble Space Telescope which is pretty cool. But is that enough for radio astronomers? Certainly not! These days there are arrays the size of Europe, the US and even bigger than the planet Earth.

Now interferometers are all well and good especially at giving great resolution, but when it comes to sensitivity - the number of levels of grey - they just don't cut it. That is because sensitivity depends on collecting area; you need a big light (or in this case radio wave) bucket, not just tiny cups well spaced out. So around the world, plans were drawn up to build a telescope with two orders of magnitude better sensitivity than anything that currently exists. The plan was imaginatively called the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) as it aims to have a collecting area of one million square metres.

At the moment there are several different designs under consideration and the actual site hasn't even been chosen. The candidates are Western Australia, South Africa, China and Argentina. You might have noticed that three of the four are at pretty much the same latitude, mainly because many of the next generation of astronomical observatories are being built in the southern hemisphere. Wherever the final site turns out to be, it will require the creation of an internationally recognized interference free zone, so will have to be in an unpopulated area.

Once built, the SKA will produce masses of science. It will study earth-like planets around other stars, do some pulsar spotting, understand magnetic fields in the space between galaxies and look at the hydrogen in galaxies in the early Universe. Unfortunately, we have to wait until at least 2015 until the first observations are made.

Posted in astro blog by Stuart on Tuesday 03rd May 2005 (23:28 UTC) | Permalink
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